Pubic lice (also called crabs) are tiny insects which usually live in the pubic or genital area of humans. They are also sometimes found on other coarse body hair, such as hair on the legs, armpits, mustache, beard, eyebrows, or eyelashes. Pubic lice on the eyebrows or eyelashes of children or teens may be a sign of sexual exposure or abuse.
Pubic lice are parasites, and they need to feed on human blood to survive. They are one of the three types of lice that live on humans. The other two types are head lice and body lice. Each type of lice is different, and getting one type does not mean that you will get another type.
Pubic lice move by crawling, because they cannot hop or fly. They usually spread through sexual contact. Occasionally, they may spread through physical contact with a person who has pubic lice, or through contact with clothing, beds, bed linens, or towels that were used by a person with pubic lice. You cannot get pubic lice from animals.
Since they spread mainly through sexual contact, pubic lice are most common in adults.
The most common symptom of pubic lice is intense itching in the genital area. You may also see nits (lice eggs) or crawling lice.
A diagnosis of a pubic lice usually comes from seeing a louse or nit. But lice and nits can be difficult to find because there may be only a few present. Also, they often attach themselves to more than one hair, and they do not crawl as quickly as head and body lice. Sometimes it takes a magnifying lens to see the lice or nits.
People who have pubic lice should also be checked for other sexually transmitted diseases, and their sexual partners should also be checked for pubic lice.
The main treatment for pubic lice is a lice-killing lotion. Options include a lotion that contains permethrin or a mousse containing pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide. These products are available over-the-counter without a prescription. They are safe and effective when you use them according to the instructions. Usually one treatment will get rid of the lice. If not, you may need another treatment after 9-10 days.
There are other lice-killing medicines that are available with a prescription from your health care provider.
You should also wash your clothes, bedding, and towels with hot water, and dry them using the hot cycle of the dryer.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention